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Primary Confinement System - hdbk1132990101
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Design Considerations - index
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Sources of Tritium - hdbk1132990103


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
following permanent closure, ongoing site maintenance should not be
needed, and
in the absence of unplanned natural processes or human contact with a
low-level waste disposal facility, calculated contaminant levels in
groundwater at the site boundary should not exceed the maximum
contaminant levels established in Federal statutes.
TRITIUM FACILITIES . The DOE Tritium Focus Group has issued DOE HDBK-1129-99,
2.10
Tritium Handling and Safe Storage. This Handbook provides reference and background
information that should be considered during the design of tritium handling and storage
facilities.
2.10.1
Introduction . The design and operational philosophy of the older tritium
facilities focused on worker protection. The tritium handling equipment was
located in airflow hoods, and any releases from the equipment went into the
ventilation system, up the stack, and directly into the environment. As long as
local airflow requirements were maintained at the proper levels, exposures to
workers were low to nonexistent. The high stacks maintained exposures to
workers and personnel working or living downwind of such releases well below
acceptable levels.
By the mid-to-late 1960s, more modern operational philosophies began to
emerge. The design philosophy changed and placed the equipment that
handled substantial quantities of tritium into gloveboxes; the gloveboxes in turn
were equipped with their own, individualized cleanup systems. Although the
initial intent of this type of change was to reduce tritium emissions to the
environment to near zero by eliminating large releases, the tritium emissions
were only reduced by some 10 to 25 percent. Thus, the primary lesson learned
from this type of operational change strongly suggested that most tritium
emissions to the environment did not come from large releases, but from the
background releases from the facilities themselves.
I-86


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