Airborne radioactive effluents typically associated with reprocessing facilities that
should be considered during the design include but are not limited to dissolver
off-gas, process vessel vents, and high-level liquid radioactive waste collection
and storage tank vents. Effluent system designs should preclude the holdup or
collection of fissile material and other material capable of sustaining a chain
reaction in portions of the system that are not geometrically favorable. Nuclear
criticality safety should be considered in the design of airborne radioactive
effluent systems. U.S. NRC R.G. 3.20, Process Off-Gas Systems for Fuel
Reprocessing Plants, and R.G. 3.32, General Design Guide for Ventilation
Systems for Fuel Reprocessing Plants, provide useful design guidance that
should be considered.
URANIUM CONVERSION AND RECOVERY FACILITIES.
Introduction . UCRFs receive feed materials (such as UF6, uranyl nitrate, or
UO3), process these materials chemically, and produce uranium metal, UO 2, and
UF6. Uranium recovery facilities receive and handle scrap feed materials that are
of different types, shapes, sizes, uranium contents, and enrichments. The kind
of scrap and therefore the process to facilitate recovery of uranium may vary
daily. This section is not process-specific, but is principally directed at facilities
that produce feed materials for UPHFs and those facilities that recover uranium
from scrap provided by UPHFs.
Design Considerations . The design of UCRFs should consider the features
described below. Design requirements vary significantly depending on the
material characteristics, the type of recovery and conversion processes used,
and the characteristics of the site.
The design should provide special control and isolation of flammable,
toxic, and explosive gases, chemicals, and materials admitted to the
areas of the facility.
To the extent practical, the primary confinement system should be
constructed of fire-resistant materials, and the process equipment and