hazards, including nuclear, are involved requires a commitment to extensive review and
complete documentation following the requirements outlined in DOE Manual 450.3.1.
The N&S Process is a manpower intensive activity which can create operational
resource conflicts unless managed properly. Assigned program staff, Assurance
Managers, ES&H Subject matter experts and line managers are major contributors to
the N&S Process. A careful assessment of day-to-day ES&H Program needs has to be
balanced with N&S Process support. ISMS also adds another demand on their time.
There are different kinds of workers who all need to be included in the N&S Process.
The N&S Process should include all types of workers in the identification of work and
characterization of the hazards. Upper, mid and first level supervisors as well as hands
on technicians and crafts workers should be included in the N&S Process in order to
benefit from their various perspectives and experience.
The selection of standards to manage work safely is based on the work and the broad
experience of its managers. Safety standards can be selected based on the work and
its associated hazards. The selection of standards to manage work safely is not only
based on a knowledge of the work, but also the broad experience of managers who
understand the institutional philosophies and complexities of managing work safely at
LLNL. In fact, it was our experience that in some management areas broad managerial
experience was more important than detailed knowledge of the work.
Local Standards were developed to build on, add to and quantify information in existing
DOE Orders and consensus standards. Over the years, research and development
activities at LLNL on the many and complex national needs has resulted in LLNL
performing unique work and developing special expertise in dealing with certain hazards.
In moving from an experience based to a standards based ES&H system, LLNL needed
to develop and codify local standards controlling the unique work and hazards to
supplement the existing body of consensus and DOE standards. Also, in several more
common areas, e.g., ergonomics and the use of HEPA filters, we found that adequate
national standards were not available.