FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
Trainees may be hurt emotionally. The instructor should make positive
comments, avoid making comparisons to other trainees, and never ridicule the
trainee's efforts. Trainees need to be rewarded (positive reinforcement) for their
efforts; at first for doing the task nearly correctly, and after proficiency is gained
for doing the task correctly.
Open Communications--A trainee is more likely to learn if OJT is structured so that the
instructor's messages are open to the trainee's inspection. To improve open communications
the instructor should:
Clearly state the terminal and enabling learning objectives. The learning
objectives tell the trainee exactly what is expected of him/her.
Point out relationships. Give cues and prompts to the trainee to be sure he/she
understands what has been said.
Avoid using technical terms without explaining them to the trainee (do not assume
that he/she knows).
Talk about a system or component of that system at the location of the item if
possible. Make full use of being at the job site to stimulate as many sensory
inputs (sight, sounds, smell, touch) as possible. Make sure the trainee can see
and hear everything that is explained and demonstrated as it takes place.
Ask the trainee questions to verify comprehension. Open communication is a
two-way street--the trainee should also feel free to ask the instructor questions.
Modeling--This is the very foundation of on-the-job training. The instructor provides a model
performance for the trainee to emulate. It is very important that the instructor presents the
material in the proper sequence and observes all applicable procedures and safety
requirements. The trainee will emulate improper performance just as readily as proper
performance. Therefore, the instructor must perform the task correctly.
Active Appropriate Practice--Learning is more likely to take place if the trainee takes an active
part. OJT is an active hands-on process. Practice should be as similar to the actual job task as