should stress safety and compliance with facility procedures. An effective way to do this is by
his/her own personal actions. Since the trainee generally imitates the instructor's performance,
the instructor should demonstrate the task exactly the way it should be performed. The
instructor should ask the trainee frequent questions and explain or demonstrate task elements
again as necessary. The instructor should proceed slowly and continue the demonstration
only after it is clear that the trainee understands.
The instructor should closely supervise the trainee's initial practice to ensure safe and correct
task performance. An effective method of conducting the practice step is to have the trainee
talk through the key points and demonstrate the main steps of the task. During the practice
session, the instructor should ask the trainee questions regarding what is being done, why it is
done, and what indications to look for. The trainee should practice at his/her own pace without
unnecessary interruption or too much instructor assistance. As the trainee gains proficiency,
the instructor should reduce or fade his/her coaching. However, the instructor should never
hesitate to stop the trainee if a mistake can be prevented or has been made. The instructor
should correct improper actions promptly and without belittling the individual. The trainee will
usually know what he/she did wrong, and very little correction should be necessary. The
instructor should be patient and provide positive comments on the trainee's initial efforts.
Sufficient time should be scheduled to allow for trainee practice. Depending on the difficulty a
trainee is having performing a task, the instructor may have to schedule additional training and
practice at a later date. The time to identify and correct errors is during the training rather than
during the performance test.
The OJT guide (or equivalent) should specify the degree of supervision that is required when
the trainee practices under supervision. Facility procedures and the hazard or complexity of
the task should be the overriding factor in this requirement. In both of the following cases the
instructor supervises the trainee, but the degree of supervision is different:
Controlled--The instructor closely supervises the trainee. The trainee works at
his/her own pace but the instructor is always ready to stop him/her to prevent or
Independent--The instructor allows the trainee to practice the task at his/her
own pace following the demonstration. This method has limited usefulness for
facility operators but may work quite well in a shop or laboratory environment.
The instructor closely supervises the trainee the first time he/she practices the
task and then allows the trainee to practice independently, periodically checking
and coaching as necessary.
Regardless of the method used, the end result should be sufficient trainee practice to develop
proficiency in task performance (i.e., performance satisfies the learning objectives).