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Appendix A: Review of Measurements of Equilibrium Factors
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Internal Dosimetry - index
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Table XVI. Radon Equilibrium Factors Indoors at Work


DOE-STD-1121-98
In Table XV are 16 results of studies of FRn indoors, along with four recommendations for a default
or assumed value (UNSCEAR 1988; UNSCEAR 1993; Porstendörfer and Reineking 1992; NCRP
1987a). Earlier data did not account for smoking, which is known to increase FRn and decrease the
unattached fraction, fp. In cleaner indoor, air, lower values of FRn are observed (UNSCEAR 1993;
Swedjemark 1983; NEA 1985). Observed values range from 0.04 to 0.97, with an average value of 0.43
and average ranges from 0.17 to 0.71. Since these measurements were made under very different
circumstances, the wide range of values is not surprising. Most recommended values are 0.4, with one of
0.3. The ICRP has adopted 0.4 (ICRP 1993a).
Table XV. Radon Equilibrium Factors Indoors at Home
Country
avg
sd
min max Reference
Environment
Rec.
Austria
0.60
Steinhausler et al. 1980
Australia
0.32 0.09
0.17  0.49 Solomon and Ren (1992)
Bangladesh
0.40 0.23
0.04  0.97 Farid (1993)
Canada
0.35
0.17  0.65 McGregor and Gourgon (1980)
18 cities
Canada
0.41
Scott (1983)
Finland
0.47
0.30  0.63 Makelainen (1980)
France
0.26
0.10  0.48 Tymen et al. (1992)
Norway
0.50
0.30  0.80 Stranden et al. (1979)
Sweden
0.44
0.10  0.80 Swedjemark (1983)
Sweden
0.51
Jonassen and McLaughlin (1989)
smoker
Sweden
0.46
Jonassen and McLaughlin (1989)
nonsmokers
USA
0.63
George and Breslin (1980)
living areas
USA
0.33
Israeli (1985)
living areas
West Germany
0.37
0.25  0.65 Wicke and Porstendorfer (1982)
West Germany
0.34
0.10  0.90 Keller and Folkerts (1984)
Yugoslavia
0.55
Planinic and Faj (1990)
0.17  0.71 All Studies
AVERAGE
0.43
0.09  0.17 All Studies
Std. Dev.
0.11
All Studies
Min of Minima
0.04
All Studies
Max of Maxima
0.97
No. Studies
16
recommendation
UNSCEAR (1988) Annex A para 140
0.4
recommendation
UNSCEAR (1993) Annex A para 118
0.4
summary
0.20
0.40 Porstendorfer and Reineking (1992)
0.3
recommendation
NCRP (1987)
0.4
The workplace may have different aerosol characteristics from the home (either cleaner or dirtier).
However, few measurements of FRn in the workplace are available. Two Japanese authors (Hattori and
Ishida 1994) measured the equilibrium factor of 222Rn in a pressurized water reactor auxiliary building for
a year. In this clean, well-ventilated workplace, they observed a mean of 1,993 measurements of F =
0.28 + 0.09, with the lognormally distributed unattached fraction median fp = 0.069 with a GSD = 1.8. In
a boiling water reactor turbine building, they observed that the mean of 2,555 equilibrium factor
measurements was F = 0.32 + 0.10 with a lognormally distributed unattached fraction median fp = 0.056
128


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