In the Performance-Based Training Manual (TAP 2), the design phase is described as
the place where "... information collected during the analysis phase (is used) to provide a
`blueprint' for developing...training programs." The manual goes on to state that one of
"...the major outputs of the design phase are the learning objectives...."
Information on how to write learning objectives can be found in the DOE Guide to
Good Practices for Developing Learning Objectives.
After the learning objectives have been written, the instructional developer should
consider what instructional strategies (i.e., the settings and methods) should be used to teach
the objectives. Whether designing lesson plans for initial or continuing training, or revising
existing lesson plans, the instructional developer has many choices to make when considering
the instructional strategy of a lesson. A case study is but one of those strategies that can be
When reviewing the objectives, an instructional developer should look for key words
that indicate a higher-level objective that may be suitable for a case study. Higher-level
learning objectives are those objectives that require a trainee to use problem-solving skills
rather than simple recall or memorization. Table 1 contains examples of action verbs that
lend themselves to using a case study.
Table 1. Action verbs that lend themselves to case studies.
HIGHER LEVEL CLASSIFICATIONS
AND KEY WORDS
analyze, classify, compare, detect, diagnose,
examine, identify, recognize, troubleshoot
conclude, derive, design, develop, discuss,
formulate, organize, plan, predict, relate,
restate, solve, summarize, write
assess, decide, choose, defend, determine,
evaluate, rate, select
advocate, model, support
argue, debate, defend, prevent