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DOE-STD-1098-99
Radiological Control
Conduct of Radiological Work
June 2004
PART 6 Special Applications
This Part provides supplemental information to augment the basic requirements of the Standard. Articles 361 through 365
provide information to be used in developing the site-specific radiological control manual. Written guidance and
requirements contained within DOE documents, consensus standards, or Federal regulations that delineate specifics for
each application are referenced.
Articles 361 through 363 of this Part are applicable to those facilities where the majority of the work or operations involve
the subject radionuclide as the significant source term. This Part is not intended to apply to facilities that use the subject
radionuclides in limited or tracer amounts, such as analytical laboratories.
361 Plutonium Operations
There is the perception that exposure to small quantities of plutonium presents greater risk than exposure to other
radionuclides. Low levels of plutonium in the body are difficult to measure and biological removal processes for
plutonium are slow. For these reasons:
1.
Primary emphasis shall be placed on engin eered features to contain plutonium and to prevent airborne and surface
contamination [see 835.1001(a)].
2.
In addition to the provisions of this Standard, guidance contained in the document, DOE-STD-1128-98, Guide to
Good Practices For Occupational Radia tion Protection in Plutonium Facilities , Reaffirmation with Errata (May 2003)
should be considered in preparing the site-specific radiological control manual for plutonium operations. This
standard provides specific guidance related to dosimetry, radiological monitoring, instrumentation, contamination
control, and applicable radiological control procedures.
362 Uranium Operations
Natural, depleted, and low-enriched uranium are unusual in that their chemical toxicity is more limiting in the human body
than their radioactivity. Also, processed uranium sometimes contains transuranic and other radionuclides from recycled
materials.
For these reasons, in addition to the provisions of this Standard, the guidance contained in DOE-STD-1136-2000, Guide
of Go od Practice for Occupational Radiological Protection in Uranium Facilities, Change Notice No. 3, (December, 2001)
should be considered in preparing the site-specific radiological control manual for uranium operations. This manual
provides specific guidance related to management controls, radiological monitoring, contamination control, and internal
and external exposure controls.
363 Tritium Operations
The following characteristics of tritium require consideration in the implementation of the radiological control program at
tritium facilities:
1.
Tritium emits low energy beta particles which cannot be monitored using external dosimeters, consequently
requiring the use of bioassay measurements to evaluate worker dose.
2.
Worker exposure to tritium as water vapor causes a much greater dose than exposure to elemental tritium gas.
3-23


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