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Exposure Screening Guidelines for Exposures Evaluated at the Site Boundary.
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DOE Standard Accident Analysis For Aircraft Crash Into Hazardous Facilities
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Onsite Exposure Screening Guidelines - Continued


DOE-STD-3014-96
APPENDIX A
Basis: Currently, ERPGs have only been defined for 35 chemicals. In
Appendix A of Technical Guidance on Hazards Analysis, the EPA
discusses the options that are available for the definition of the LOC. For
most chemicals, the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) is
tabulated. The IDLH has been developed by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and is defined as "The
maximum concentration of a substance in air from which healthy male
workers can escape without loss of life or irreversible health effects under
conditions of a maximum 30-minute exposure time." EPA recommends
10 percent of the IDLH as an LOC. If neither the IDLH nor the ERPG is
available, it is recommended that the analyst consult an expert
toxicologist.
Occasionally, the question arises as to whether worker exposure limits
such as the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) could be used as LOCs in
emergencies involving the public. The TLV has been developed by the
American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to
limit workplace exposure. ACGIH explicitly advises against using or
applying TLVs outside the workplace.
A.1.2 Onsite Exposure Screening Guidelines. Much thought went into the issue of
whether additional guidelines were required specifically to address the risk to
onsite workers. That is, could there be cases in which more detailed analysis of
aircraft crash scenarios would be desirable even if there no risk to the public? It
was felt that, in the main, there would be no need for guidelines related to worker
safety. The basis for this conclusion is the nature of aircraft crash itself. An
aircraft crash violent enough to cause a release from a facility will result in death
to the occupants of the aircraft with near certainty. Further, the level of damage
at the facility itself would also, with high probability, result in death or serious
injury to occupants of the facility or neighboring areas directly affected by the
crash and associated debris. When one considers these high probability
consequences, exposure to hazardous material release is very unlikely to add
significantly to the workers' overall risk from the accident. In fact, the insights
A-3


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