resistance force mobilized as the missile penetrates the earth medium. Penetration equations
(Reference 12) also provide techniques for treating missiles of shapes other than ballistic.
A finite element method has been used to determine the response of buried structures subject
to aircraft impact (References 15-17). Other simplified and less rigorous methods can also be
used where appropriate.
UCRL-ID-124837, C.Y. Kimura, T. Lin, T. Haley, "Data Development for the Accident
Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities Standard," Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory Report.
Chang: Chang, W.S., Impact of solid missiles on concrete barriers, Journal of the
Structural Div. ASCE. Vol. 107, No. ST2 (February, 1981).
Modified NDRC Formula: Kennedy, R.P., "A Review of Procedures for the Analysis and
Design of Concrete Structures to Resist Missile Impact Effects," Nuclear Engineering
and Design, Vol. 37, No. 2, North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, May, 1976.
Bechtel Formula (1975): Vassallo, F. A. Missile Impact Testing of Reinforced Concrete
Panels, Hc-5609-d-1, Calspan Corporation, Buffalo, New York, Prepared for Bechtel
Corporation, January 1975
Stone & Webster Formula (1976): Jankov, Z.D., Shanahan, J.A., and White, M.P.,
"Missile Tests of Quarter-scale Reinforced Concrete Barriers," Presented at a
Symposium on Tornadoes, Assessment of Knowledge and Implications for Man, Texas
Tech. University, Lubbock, Texas, June 1976.
CEA-EDF Formula: Berriaud, C,. Sokolovsky, A., Guerraud, R., Dulac, J., and Labrot, R.,
"Local Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Walls Under Missile Impact," Paper J 7/9, Fourth
International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Berlin, August,