Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion, published
September 1988. This document is available from the National Technical Information Service,
Disintegration, Nuclear: A spontaneous nuclear transformation (radioactivity) characterized by
the emission of energy and/or mass from the nucleus. When numbers of nuclei are involved, the
process is characterized by a definite half-life.
Committed Dose Equivalent: The calculated dose equivalent projected to be received by
a tissue or organ over a 50-year period after an intake of radionuclide into the body. It
does not include contributions from external dose.
Committed Effective Dose Equivalent: The sum of the committed dose equivalents to
various tissues in the body, each multiplied by its weighting factor.
Cumulative Annual Effective Dose Equivalent: The sum of the annual effective dose
equivalents recorded for an individual for each year of employment.
Dose Equivalent: The product of absorbed dose (D) in rad (or gray) in tissue, a quality
factor (Q), and other modifying factors (N).
Effective Dose Equivalent: The summation of the products of the dose equivalent
received by specified tissues of the body (HT) and the appropriate weighting factor (wT)--
that is, HE = ΣwTHT. It includes the dose from radiation sources internal and/or external to
Dosimeter: A portable instrument for measuring and registering the total accumulated dose to
Dosimetry: The theory and application of the principles and techniques involved in the
measurement and recording of radiation doses. Its practical aspect is concerned with the use of
various types of radiation instruments with which measurements are made.
Dose Rate: The radiation dose delivered per unit of time. Measured, for example, in rad per hour.
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