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Block flow diagrams may be used to show major process equipment and interconnecting process
flow lines, flow rates, stream composition, temperatures, and pressures. When necessary for
completeness, process flow diagrams should be used to show all main flow streams including
valves; pressures and temperatures on all feed and product lines within all major vessels; and
points of pressure and temperature control. Construction materials, pump capacities, pressure
heads, compressor horsepower, and vessel design pressures and temperatures are shown when
necessary for clarity. Major components of control loops are usually shown along with key
utilities. Piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), which are required under process
equipment information, may be more appropriate to show some of these details.
2.1.3 Information About Process Equipment
Process equipment information must include at least: (1) materials of construction; (2) P&IDs;
(3) electrical classification; (4) relief system design and design basis; (5) ventilation system
design; (6) design codes and standards; (7) material and energy balances for processes ; and (8)
safety systems.
Process equipment design and materials must be documented by identifying the applicable
codes and standards (e.g., ASME, ASTM, API). If the codes and standards are not current, the
DOE contractor must document that the design, construction, testing, inspection, and operation
are still suitable for the intended use. If the process technology requires a design that departs
from the applicable codes and standards, the contractor must document that the design and
construction are suitable for the intended purpose.
Process Hazard Analysis
A PrHA is an organized and systematic method to identify and analyze the significance of
potential hazards associated with processing or handling highly hazardous chemicals. A PrHA
helps employers and workers to make decisions for improving safety and reducing the
consequences of unwanted or unplanned releases of hazardous chemicals. It is used to analyze
potential causes and consequences of fires, explosions, releases of toxic or flammable
chemicals, and major spills of hazardous chemicals. It focuses on equipment, instrumentation,
utilities, routine and non-routine human actions, and external factors that might impact a
The PSM Rule specifies that a PrHA be performed on every process covered under the rule. If
several processes require PrHAs, the PrHAs must be prioritized. A preliminary hazard analysis
(PHA) may be used to determine and document the priority order for conducting PrHAs. At a
minimum, the PSM Rule requires the prioritization to consider the potential severity of a
chemical release, the number of potentially affected employees, and the operating history of the
process, including the frequency of past chemical releases and the age of the process.

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