Table 4.17 Time Estimates for Using the HAZOP Study Method
2 to 6 days(b)
8 to 12 hours
1 to 3 days
2 to 4 days
1 to 4 weeks
2 to 6 weeks
(a) Primarily team leader and scribe, although others may work during this phase.
(b) Team leader and scribe only. May be shorter for experienced scribes using computer software in the HAZOP study meetings.
Source: CCPS, 1992.
4.4.5 Example Hazard and Operability Studies
Partial HAZOP studies for the example processes described in Section 4.0 are shown in
Tables 4.18 and 4.19. A complete example of a HAZOP study can be found in
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
4.5.1 Description of the Method
A FMEA is used to examine each potential failure mode of a process to determine the
effects of the failure on the system. A failure mode is the symptom, condition, or fashion
in which hardware fails. It may be identified as a loss of function, a premature function
(function without demand), an out-of-tolerance condition, or a physical characteristic,
such as a leak, observed during inspection. The effect of a failure mode is determined by
the system's response to the failure.
4.5.2 Analysis Procedure
A FMEA has three steps: (1) defining the process, (2) performing the analysis, and (3)
documenting the results. Defining the process for study and documenting the results can
be performed by a single person. The analysis itself must be performed by a team.
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