will gel. The electrolyte in the pores of the plates and microporous
separators remains liquid.
Material composition of the positive plate, such as lead calcium, lead
antimony, or lead selenium.
Increase in dimension of lead-battery plates caused by oxidation of
metallic lead grids into lead dioxide, which consumes more volume.
A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a
frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.
For example, a third harmonic is equivalent to three times the
A tool or device which has conductive parts and is either coated or
covered with a dielectric material.
Limiting Oxygen Index
The flammability index of the plastic material used in the
construction of the battery jar. LOI ratings of 28 or greater are
desirable due to the plastic's ability to withstand fires rather than
contribute to them.
A selected cell whose condition is assumed to indicate the condition of
the entire battery string. The pilot cell is usually selected for
representative measurements for a select period of time. Once this
time period has elapsed, another cell from the battery string is selected
in turn to be the pilot cell.
The grid and active material from which current flows to the
external circuit when the battery is discharging. The positive plate can
be composed of pure lead or a lead alloy such as calcium, antimony,
Electrically insulating layer of material which physically separates
electrodes of opposite polarity. Separators must be permeable to ions
in the electrolyte, and may also have the function of storing or
immobilizing the electrolyte.
Ratio of the weight of a solution to the weight of an equal volume of
water at a specified temperature. Used as an indicator of the state of
charge of a cell or battery.
A factor used to compensate for battery temperatures other than
77F, which is the standard optimum rating for battery operation. At
temperatures above 77F, more capacity (ampere-hours) can be
obtained from the battery, but battery life is reduced. At temperatures
lower than 77, less capacity can be obtained, but battery life is
extended. Consult IEEE 450 for correction factors.