Describe the effects of pressure and temperature changes on confined fluids.
Describe how the density of a fluid varies with temperature.
Describe the relationship between the pressure in a fluid column and the density and
depth of the fluid.
Define the terms "mass flow rate" and "volumetric flow rate".
Describe the phenomenon of water hammer, pressure spike, and steam hammer.
Instrumentation and control personnel shall demonstrate a familiarity level knowledge of
mechanical engineering, theories, principles, and techniques.
Supporting Knowledge and/or Skills
Describe the basic construction and operation of the following types of valves used in a
Flow control valve
Relief and safety valves
Discuss how valve operation controlled by a process control system can cause water
hammer or pressure spiking if the system is not designed properly.
Describe the basic operation and pressure/flow characteristics of the following types of
Positive displacement pump
Describe the basic design and operation of a compressed air system used to supply
instrument air, including a discussion of the function of the following components:
Describe the function and operation of vibration monitoring equipment used to monitor
large motors, pumps, and compressors.
Describe the basic operation of pressure regulating valves and flow control valves in a
Describe the basic theory of operation of a heat exchanger used in a process system.
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