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DOE-STD-6003-96 Beryllium
Beryllium and beryllium compounds can pose potential health risks to humans. They may
be used as plasma-facing components in ITER. This section summarizes the current U.S. regu-
lations about allowable emission to the environment and permissible occupational exposure to
OSHA regulations limit permissible exposures to a time-weighted average of
0.002 mg/m3 for the beryllium concentration in workroom air. For short-term exposure (i.e.,
30 min), the exposure limit is 0.025 mg/m3. The NIOSH recommends an exposure guideline of
0.0005 mg/m3 in workroom air during an 8-h shift. There are also limits on acceptable beryllium
ambient air concentrations and drinking water quality standards for a number of states in the
United States (DHHS 1993). This Standard recommends the adoption of the NIOSH exposure
guidelines for beryllium in a fusion facility. Vanadium Oxides
Since absorption of vanadium is chiefly by the respiratory tract, mechanical enclosure of
many vanadium-using operations is required. If this is impractical, the worker must be provided
with an air-fed unit to ensure complete respiratory protection from vanadium pentoxide (Finkel
1983). NIOSH 15-min time-weighted average exposure limits for vanadium compounds in air
are 0.05 mg vanadium/m3. For metallic vanadium, ferrovanadium dust, and vanadium carbide,
the NIOSH exposure limits are 1.0 mg V/m3 (3 mg V/m3 for short-term exposures) (NIOSH
1994). OSHA exposure limits are 0.5 mg V2O5 /m3 for vanadium dust, 0.1 mg V2O5 /m3 for
vanadium fume, and 1 mg/m3 for ferrovanadium dust (29 CFR 1910). This Standard recom-
mends the adoption of the NIOSH exposure guidelines for vanadium in a fusion facility.
2.3.3 Common Industrial Hazards
As with any large industrial facility, a fusion power plant facility will contain other hazards,
such as flammable materials, rotating machinery, and nonbreathable gases. These hazards are
not unique to fusion power and will therefore be regulated according to existing OSHA criteria
(29 CFR 1910, 1926) or commonly accepted industrial safety practices.
2.3.4 Magnetic Fields
The magnetic confinement fusion facilities addressed in this Standard may have magnetic
fields of considerable strength extending throughout areas of the facilities and possibly beyond
interior rooms. These fields may be steady state, or they may vary in time and/or space. In
general, the magnetic field at the site boundary will be very low, usually less than the earth's
magnetic field (~50 T).
The recommended limits for occupational exposures to steady-state and low-frequency
magnetic fields are those established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH). At present, the ACGIH states:

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