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to be used in determining when public protection is required are discussed in the following
DOE, EPA, and NRC guidance on emergency planning indicates that a spectrum of acci-
dent scenarios should be considered to determine the emergency planning basis. To ensure
that emergency response would encompass breadth, versatility, and flexibility, events should
include both design-basis (those events specifically designed for) and beyond-design-basis
events. The discussion of the types of BDBA events to be selected for analysis is also applica-
ble here.
Best-estimate calculations should be performed for emergency planning basis events,
similar to that used for BDBA analysis. Because the conservatisms associated with the tradi-
tional deterministic design-basis type of analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant,
such calculations are not appropriate for emergency planning. For example, two key inputs into
such emergency planning decisions are (a) the timing, quantity, and duration of the release of
radioactive material and (b) the meteorological conditions at the time of the release. Differences
in the conservative calculations of these inputs and the expected values could cause emergency
planners to execute the wrong public countermeasure (e.g., evacuation vs sheltering). Thus,
EPA requirements and NRC guidance on the issue indicate that for the purposes of emergency
planning, it is important to know the expected response of the facility so that prudent emergency
plans can be developed. Thus, the need exists for best-estimate analysis of facility response
under a range of off-normal conditions using realistic models for evaluating the off-normal
scenario and resulting consequences to the potential receptors (NRC 1978). The results should
include the unavoidable dose received during the evacuation, if evacuation is dictated over other
mitigative measures (e.g., sheltering). In practical applications, dose projections will usually
begin at the time of the anticipated (or actual) initiation of the release.
The criterion used to determine whether emergency planning is required for a given facil-
ity is if the results of the off-normal event analysis exceed 10 mSv (1 rem). This criterion would
eliminate the necessity for performing emergency planning for either personnel evacuation or
sheltering. If the consequence results exceed this criterion, then an emergency plan must be
developed to protect those off-site personnel. Thus, if the analysis of off-normal events for a
fusion facility does not result in exceeding 10 mSv (1 rem), the fusion requirement of no off-site
evacuation/sheltering is satisfied.
5.5 Safety Analysis Report Process
The safety analysis report (SAR) process is a two-step approach to identifying the safety
concerns associated with a facility. The first is an identification of the potential safety risks
associated with a facility and classification into the proper hazard categorization. The second
step is to perform the required safety analysis to demonstrate that the safety concerns associ-
ated with a facility design and operations are adequately addressed. The amount and type of
safety analysis required is dictated by the facility hazard categorization. The content and format
for documenting the safety analysis in the SAR is provided based on the applicable DOE
requirements. As discussed earlier, the type of safety analysis required for the SAR is primarily
deterministic in nature, although probabilistic approaches may have been used but are not

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