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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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DOE-STD-1128-98
heat on its own. Some of its elements will remain radioactive for thousands of years. Because of
this, HLW must be managed very carefully and all handling must be performed from behind
heavy protective shielding. (DOE/S-0101)
intake: The amount of radionuclide taken into the body by inhalation, absorption through intact
skin, injection, ingestion or through wounds. Depending on the radionuclide involved, intakes
may be reported in mass (e.g., g, mg) or activity (e.g., Ci, Bq) units. (Internal Dosimetry IG)
LLW: Low-level waste (LLW) is any radioactive waste that is not HLW, spent nuclear fuel,
TRU waste, or uranium mill tailings. The LLW is typically contaminated with small amounts of
radioactivity dispensed in large amounts of material. The LLW is generated in every process
involving radioactive materials in the DOE including decontamination and decommissioning
projects. (DOE/S-0101)
minimum detectable amount/activity (MDA): The smallest amount (activity or mass) of an
analyte in a sample that will be detected with a probabilty β of non-detection (Type II error)
while accepting a probability α of erroneously deciding that a positive (non-zero) quantity of
analyte is present in an appropriate blank sample (Type I error). (ANSI N13.30-1996)
MW: Mixed waste (MW) is waste that contains both radioactive and hazardous wastes. Any of
the types of radioactive waste described can be a mixed waste if it contains any hazardous wastes.
In fact, all of DOE's HLW is mixed waste because of the chemicals used to reprocess the fuel that
resulted in the generation of the material or because it is suspected to contain hazardous materials.
(DOE/S-0101)
occupational exposure: An individual's exposure to ionizing radiation (external and internal) as
a result of that individual's work assignment. Occupational exposure does not include planned
special exposures, exposure received as a medical patient, background radiation, or voluntary
participation in medical research programs. (10 CFR 835)
personal air monitoring: The monitoring of air for radioactive particles in the immediate
vicinity of an individual radiation worker's nose and mouth, usually by a portable sampling pump
and collection tube (such as a lapel sampler) worn on the body. Personal air monitoring is a
special case of breathing zone air monitoring. (Workplace Air Monitoring IG)
portable air sampler: An air sampler designed to be moved from area to area.
radiation area: Any area accessible to individuals in which radiation levels could result in an
individual receiving a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (0.05 millisievert) in 1 hour at
30 cm from the source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates. (10 CFR 835)
radiation-generating device (RDG): The collective term for devices which produce ionizing
radiation, sealed sources which emit ionizing radiation, small particle accelerators used for single
purpose applications which produce ionizing radiation (e.g., radiography), and electron-
generating devices that produce x-rays incidentally. (Radiation-Generating Devices IG)
radioactive material: For the purposes of the standard, Radiological Control, radioactive
material includes any material, equipment or system component determined to be contaminated
or suspected of being contaminated. Radioactive material also includes activated material, sealed
and unsealed sources, and material that emits radiation. (RCS)
A-4


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