The ventilation system of the facility should be designed to withstand any credible
fire or explosion. It should be constructed of noncombustible materials and have
fire-detection and fire-suppression equipment, including heat and smoke detectors,
alarms, fire doors and dampers, and heat-removal systems. The final filter bank of
the building's air-exhaust system should be protected from damage by hot gases,
burning debris, or fire-suppression agents that may be carried through the exhaust
ducts during a 4-hour fire.
Over-pressure protection should be considered for critical items such as glove
boxes, cells, and ventilation ducts.
Waste from plutonium-handling facilities includes radioactive, radioactive mixed,
and hazardous (non-radioactive) materials and will be in the form of liquid or
gaseous effluent and solids packaged for shipment offsite. A principal design
objective for the process systems should be to minimize the production of wastes at
the source. A principal design objective for the waste management systems should
be to provide facilities and equipment to handle the wastes safely and effectively.
The design of the facility should limit the environmental release of radioactive,
radioactive mixed, and hazardous materials to less than the DOE and EPA
regulations and ALARA. Emphasis should be placed on reducing total quantities of
effluent (both radioactive and non-radioactive) released to the environment. See
Section 8.0 for additional information on waste management.
C.6 SPECIAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
Special systems and equipment should be incorporated in plutonium facilities to ensure the
safety of the worker and protection of the public. As a minimum, the following systems
should be included:
Air sampling and monitoring;
nuclear accident dosimeters; and
monitoring and alarms.
These systems and equipment plus some that may not be directly related to personnel safety
and radiation protection are discussed in the following subsections.
Air Sampling and Monitoring
The air-monitoring and air-sampling systems for a plutonium facility should meet
the criteria established in the Implementation Guide. Workplace Air Monitoring
(DOE, 1999f). In addition, PNL-6612, The Health Physics Manual of Good
Practices for the Prompt Detection of Airborne Plutonium in the Workplace
(Mishima et al., 1988) provides information for the design, implementation,
operation, documentation, and evaluation of a plutonium air-sampling program.