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Contaminated material versus activated material
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Radiological Safety Training For Accelerator Facilities - index
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DOE-HDBK-1108-97
Radiological Training for Accelerator Facilities
Student's Guide
Beamline components may become activated (radioactive) depending on:
N
Nature of the material.
N
Proximity to the beam.
N
Beam characteristics.
Items that intercept a portion of the beam are most likely to be activated and
contaminated. Among those items that have the highest probability for activation are:
N
Targets: Targets are devices designed to intercept a portion of the beam for the
purposes of producing secondary beams of particles or physical reactions.
N
Beam dumps or stops: Beam dumps or stops are used to absorb the beam at the end
of a beam cycle.
N
Collimators and scrapers: Collimators and scrapers are used to remove particles
(halo) that have drifted from the highly collimated beam.
N
Septa and other magnets: Septa and other magnets are used to align and direct
beams.
N
Cavities and beamline: Beamline piping and items such as resonating cavities,
diagnostic devices, etc., may become activated.
5.
Air
Air, dust, and other gases in the accelerator enclosure may be activated. Typically, the
activation products are short-lived gaseous radionuclides of the elements in the air or
particulate, in the case of dust particles. One example is Oxygen-15 which is produced
from Nitrogen-14 and Oxygen-16.
21


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