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Radiological Safety Training For Accelerator Facilities - index
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Van de Graaff Generator - hdbk11080043


DOE-HDBK-1108-97
Radiological Training for Accelerator Facilities
Instructor's Guide
Lesson Plan
Instructor's Notes
I.
HISTORY AND USES OF ACCELERATORS
A.
Definition
Accelerators are devices employing electrostatic or
Reference 5480.25
electromagnetic fields to input kinetic energy to
molecules, atomic or subatomic particles and capable
of creating a radiological area.
B.
Need for Accelerators
In the early 1900s, radioactive particles could be
obtained only from materials found in nature. The
studies that physicists wanted to perform required both
higher intensities and higher energies than were
obtainable from the natural sources. The ability to vary
energy and intensity to suit a particular experiment was
also desirable.
In the 1930s, scientists began to build machines that
produced the needed degree of control. These machines
were called accelerators.
C.
The Development of the Accelerator
The earliest accelerators were simple vacuum tubes in
which electrons were given an increase in energy by the
voltage difference between two oppositely charged
electrodes.
8


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