Quantcast Overview - std-1121-98-reaffirmation0016

 

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Introduction - std-1121-98-reaffirmation0015
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DOE-STD-1121-98
personnel may use the specific methods and references in this standard as examples of acceptable means
and methods to meet the internal dosimetry requirements of 10 CFR 835 and recommendations of the
RadCon Standard, as elaborated in the Implementation Guide for Internal Dosimetry Programs.
The standard will be reviewed and updated by DOE when necessary. Technical advances in
internal dose assessment may allow strengthening of the performance specifications. Additional
improvements may be made to the standard as experience is gained through its use or application.
1.4 OVERVIEW
Internal dosimetry is a major component of nuclear safety for the approximately 100,000 radiation
workers at DOE radiological or nuclear facilities. Workers who handle nuclear materials or who are
involved in nuclear waste management are potentially at risk of inadvertent intakes of radioactive
material. DOE policy and associated radiological control programs for limiting internal effective dose
equivalents are based on containment of radioactive material to ensure (to the extent reasonably
achievable) that radionuclides from work at radiological or nuclear facilities are not taken into the body.
Most significant occupational intakes of radionuclides occur as the result of contamination incidents
associated with either the inadvertent release of radioactive material in the workplace or the unplanned
loss of containment.
DOE's 10 CFR 835 requires monitoring of employees likely to receive intakes of radionuclides
that would result in committed effective dose equivalents at or above 100 mrem in a year. Monitoring
programs in the workplace are designed to demonstrate that the requirements to limit exposure to 5 rems
committed effective dose equivalent (HE,50) in any year are being met. Radiation worker bioassay
monitoring programs are designed to provide the data needed to assess organ and tissue dose equivalents
from intakes of radioactive material. If exposures to radioactive materials are such that significant
internal doses are received from intakes occurring during the year, they are most often assessed using
biokinetic models.
In 1986, efforts were begun to develop a technically-based manual that would provide guidance on
developing and operating internal dosimetry programs at DOE radiological or nuclear facilities that wold
meet all applicable regulatory requirements. Input from internal dosimetry experts from DOE and various
DOE contractors has been collected for well over a decade. This document, which resulted from that
effort, attempts to assemble in one place information that will assist in meeting the requirements for
conducting a internal dosimetry program within the DOE complex.
The intent of this guidance document is to provide a fairly complete, though not exhaustive, set of
basic procedural guidelines for achieving minimum levels of acceptable performance in evaluating the
internal radiation dose equivalent that may be received by radiation workers from intakes of
radionuclides. The guidance provided here represents the collective wisdom of a diverse group with
experience in internal dosimetry at DOE facilities. There has been a conscious effort to include examples
from this group on the application of these guidance principles in the standard operations of their
administered internal dosimetry programs.
Section 2 provides the definitions and abbreviations that are commonly used in the field of internal
dosimetry.
Descriptions of documents and plans needed for an internal dosimetry program are provided in
Section 3. These include internal dosimetry technical basis documentation, an internal dosimetry
2


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