in considering the requirements for decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling
(discussed in Section 10.0) of the facility when it no longer is needed.
General Design Considerations
It is DOE's policy to design, construct and operate its facilities such that the
exposure of employees and the public to hazardous materials is maintained
ALARA. Detailed guidance for implementing ALARA and the application of the
optimization process to facility design is provided in PNL-6577, Health Physics
Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels That Are As
Low As Reasonably Achievable (Munson et al., 1988). Additional guidance is
provided in ICRP Publication 55, Optimization and Decision Making in
Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1989), and CONF-920468, Proceedings of the
Department of Energy ALARA Workshop (Dionne and Baum, 1992).
Equipment reliability and human-factors engineering should be considered in the
design of plutonium facilities. Both of these factors may significantly affect
radiation doses and the effectiveness of personnel response to abnormal conditions.
Reliability data may be available for much of the equipment that will be used. If
industry information is not available, reliability analyses should be conducted. The
degree of reliability that is justified may require an evaluation of the cost of the
reliability versus the expected dose reduction.
The equipment should be designed such that the failure of a single component does
not result in the loss of capability of a safety class system to accomplish its
required safety function. Analyses of hazards and assessments of risks should be
made during conceptual and preliminary design activities and further developed
during the detailed design phase. The safety analyses should be performed in
accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (DOE, 2001e).
In the planning and designing of buildings, other structures, and their operating
components and systems, all aspects of operation and maintenance should be
considered. This includes accessibility, dismantling, replacement, repair, frequency
of preventive maintenance, inspection requirements, personnel safety, and daily
operations. Facility planning and design should use the knowledge and experience
of those persons who will be responsible for operating and maintaining the
completed facility. The "lessons learned" from the operation and maintenance of
existing facilities should be used to avoid repeating mistakes made in past designs.
If possible, equipment that requires periodic inspection, maintenance, and testing
should be located in the areas that have the lowest possible radiation and
contamination levels. For equipment that is expected to be contaminated during
operation, provisions should be made for both in-place maintenance and for
removal to an area of low dose rate for repair. Maintenance areas for repair of
contaminated equipment should include provisions for containment or confinement
of radioactive materials.
Engineered safety and control systems should be designed so that they continue to
function during and following an accident or emergency condition. The need for
emergency systems and facilities should be determined and incorporated in the
facility design. Facilities should be designed to facilitate the arrival and entry of