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group technique/consensus decision-making, mindmapping, interviews,
observations, and surveys. Tools that the team may use include Mager's Human
Performance Analysis Flowchart/worksheet, fishboning, and the Pareto Diagram.
With the right mix of team members, interviews, observations of personnel and
their environment, and surveys/questionnaires may not be necessary to obtain
the necessary information.
4.2 Table-Top Needs Analysis. The primary tools used in a table-top needs analysis are
document reviews and the table-top processes. Document reviews are conducted by
individual team members who then share results with each other. Table-top processes
call for a facilitator leading the team and using many different techniques. In this process,
interviews are used only as a secondary tool. When the team cannot identify needed
information via document review and table-top discussions or when the team decides that
additional input will validate their information, then they will determine what interviews
need to be conducted. They will then divide up and conduct concurrent interviews.
Using a table-top team approach has several benefits. It promotes buy-in of both the
process and the results because organization personnel are part of the process. Needs
analysis then becomes a process initiated by the work force. The job incumbents learn
the needs analysis process and become aware of such issues as expecteds, actuals,
gaps, causes, and solutions when they return to work. This has the potential of having
workers identify where improvements can be made and whether non-training solutions are
applicable. The needs analysis process can be conducted by the team in little time
because of the team's mix of expertise. By having the team review documents and
participate in a table-top discussion, most of the needs analysis information can be uncov-
ered without using extensive interviewing, observation, or surveys that may impact facility
operations and take a lot of time. The length of time for a TTNA will vary from 2-5 days,
depending on the nature of the problem being examined.
4.3 The Facilitator. Serving as a pivotal role, the facilitator is responsible for teaching the
lessons and for facilitating the team members through the TTNA steps.
A second facilitator also participates, and rotates between being lead-and co-facilitator, in
whatever manner works best. Rotating these two equally-qualified facilitators allows a

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